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TWN Info Service on WTO and Trade Issues (Jul16/23)
27 July 2016
Third World Network

 
UNCTAD-14: Nairobi "Maafikiano" sets UNCTAD's work for next four years
Published in SUNS #8290 dated 26 July 2016


Geneva, 25 Jul (Kanaga Raja) - The fourteenth session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-14) ended on Friday (22 July) with the adoption of two documents, one of which is the Nairobi 'Maafikiano', or the Nairobi consensus document, which sets out the work programme for the organisation for the next four years.

Some excerpts from the Nairobi Maafikiano (TD/L.432, advance copy dated 22 July 2016) titled "From decision to action: Moving towards an inclusive and equitable global economic environment for trade and development", are below:

Introduction

"4. The timing of UNCTAD XIV provides an invaluable opportunity to move from decisions to actions in moving towards an inclusive and equitable global economic environment for trade and development, and thereby to be true to the commitment enshrined in the United Nations Charter to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. The aim is therefore to develop a consensus about the actions required to realize the global development agenda, including the sustainable development goals, through contributing to the establishment of a holistic trade and development agenda based on the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter, and thus better address persistent and emerging economic challenges. It also requires the leadership of an adequately resourced, relevant, coherent, efficient and effective United Nations, stressing that UNCTAD has a distinct role to play in carrying forward the trade and development mission of the United Nations." ............

"9. In an ever more complex and interdependent global economy, trade and interrelated issues in the areas of investment, finance and technology are key drivers of the inclusive, equitable global economic environment for sustainable development to which the 2030 Agenda aspires. As the focal point of the United Nations for the integrated treatment of those issues, and with its universal membership, UNCTAD thus has a critical role to play in advising on the policy dimensions of trade and sustainable development and supporting the actions which flow from recent global agreements and outcomes, while promoting the integrity and the complementarity of the three dimensions of sustainable development. The recent celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of UNCTAD is a reminder of how much the trade and development context has changed in this period and of the importance of the historical context and of the founding principles of UNCTAD and subsequent experience in plotting the course ahead. In moving forward to a new chapter, past achievements and failures and the lessons to be learned from those experiences should be reflected on." ........

"11. Reaffirming the Doha Mandate, this document provides updated policy analysis and policy responses, as well as guidelines to enhance the developmental role, impact, and institutional effectiveness of UNCTAD. In a manner that preserves its mandated role, UNCTAD should strategically position itself by translating into practice the following principal criteria: comparative advantage; differentiation of its work with respect to other organizations; and complementarity, so as to put the organization's strengths to the best use to address the needs and priorities of developing countries for sustainable development and strengthening their role in the global economy."

"12. The important role of UNCTAD will be strengthened as the focal point in the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development." ........

"14. In strengthening the role of UNCTAD, and in carrying out its activities, in accordance with its mandate and through utilizing its available resources, the work of UNCTAD through its three pillars should give priority to issues of developing countries. It should effectively contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and relevant targets set in the outcomes of other major United Nations conferences, continue to promote synergies and complementarities with other international organizations and work with relevant international economic cooperation forums where appropriate. ..." ........

Sub-theme 1: Challenges and opportunities in multilateralism for trade and development

"20. Global trade is identified by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda as an important engine for inclusive economic growth, sustainable development and poverty reduction, and the multilateral trading system as embodied by the WTO is the primary channel for its promotion. A strong, efficient and rules based multilateral trading system is also a key element in generating the significant opportunities that come with globalization, as well as in finding solutions to the challenges of globalization. These include fuller integration of developing countries into the global economy. To this end, a universal, rules-based, open, transparent, predictable, inclusive, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the WTO, as well as meaningful trade liberalization with appropriate supporting policies, are needed. ........

"24. ... Given growing concerns about external debt sustainability, public debt management to prevent and preempt financial and debt crises is important. The need for a central data registry including information on debt restructurings has also been recognized. In this regard, UNCTAD's longstanding work on debt issues within the UN - including through promotion of its principles on responsible sovereign lending and borrowing, is recognized. The work of the UN, IMF and World Bank remains important.

"25. Investment can be a powerful means to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals. Investment can bring innovative technology, can stimulate production and employment, and can enable access to international markets for better expertise and increased development opportunities. The international community should continue to cooperate and engage in dialogue with a view to maintaining a conducive policy environment for investment, and addressing shared investment policy challenges. Governments reaffirm the right to regulate investment for legitimate public policy purposes." ........

"27. Effective taxation will be critical in the mobilization of resources for implementation of the SDGs and overall economic advancement of developing countries. This includes reducing opportunities for tax avoidance; as well as addressing illicit financial flows and the activities that underlie their occurrence, such as tax evasion, illegal exploitation of natural resources, corruption, embezzlement, and fraud. This is a global issue that requires further multilateral cooperation. Current initiatives should also be more inclusive with regards to the participation of developing countries." ........

"30. Trade liberalization can play a significant role in integrating developing countries positively into the global trading system especially when accompanied by balanced and sustainable policies at all levels in support of growth, stability, industrial development, infrastructure, employment and structural change and are essential for achieving global growth, job creation, poverty reduction, and sustainable development. In this regard and in line with the WTO's Nairobi MC-10 ministerial declaration, the WTO's work shall maintain development at its centre with provisions for special and differential treatment remaining integral. The elements included in the package reached at the Nairobi 10th Ministerial Conference, in particular those in favor of least developed countries, are therefore welcome. WTO Members have made significant progress towards the goal of providing duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all products for all LDCs and further improvement in this direction would be welcome.

"31. Regional integration can be an important catalyst to reduce trade barriers, implement policy reforms, decrease trade costs, and increase developing country participation in regional and global value chains. There is a need to ensure that bilateral and regional trade agreements remain complementary to, not a substitute for, the multilateral trading system. These agreements should be consistent with, and should contribute toward a stronger multilateral trading system. ........

"35. The Agreement on Trade Facilitation of the World Trade Organization is expected to accelerate the flow of goods between countries, improve transparency and reduce transaction costs. If implemented effectively, this should enhance mutual benefits to trading nations and thus promote global sustainable development, as well as generate welfare gains for consumers and businesses. In order to achieve the goals of the agreement, potential implementation challenges, particularly for LDCs, will need to be addressed. The delivery of effective technical, financial and other mutually agreed forms of assistance as well as capacity building support is critical in this regard.

"36. States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the charter of the United Nations that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries, and that affect commercial interests. These actions hinder market access, investments and freedom of transit and the well-being of the populations of affected countries. Meaningful trade liberalization will also require addressing non-tariff measures including inter alia, unilateral measures, where they may act as unnecessary trade barriers. ........

UNCTAD should:

"40 (b) Continue to provide a forum for the exchange of views and perspectives on trade and development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology and investment as they affect the growth and development prospects of developing countries, in the context of the evolving global economic environment, to help promote policies and strategies at the national and international levels that are conducive to inclusive and sustainable development, and consistent with the priorities established by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; ........

"40 (f) Continue to help developing countries to participate effectively in international discussions on technology transfer and knowledge sharing, and to identify policy options and best practices. UNCTAD should furthermore continue to assist developing countries in identifying ways and means to operationalize technology transfer and undertake research on the impact of transfer of technology on trade and development; ........

"40 (h) Continue its analytical and policy work and technical assistance on debt issues, including the DMFAS program, and to promote policies for responsible sovereign borrowing and lending, complementing the work done by the World Bank and the IMF and other stakeholders as appropriate;"

"41. Continue to provide assistance to developing countries to design and implement policies and actions aimed at improving the efficiency of trade transactions as well as the management of transport operations. It should also continue to cooperate with member States in implementing Asycuda, the automated system for customs data. UNCTAD should also continue its work on taxation as it relates to investment policy;

"(a) Continue its work on private standards, including sustainability standards;

"(b) Address the trade and development impact of non-tariff barriers;

"(c) Assist LDCs in making use of existing initiatives and programmes such as duty free and quota free schemes, preferential rules of origin for those countries, the LDC services waiver, as well as targeted assistance in initiatives such as the Enhanced Integrated Framework and Aid for Trade;

"(d) Assist developing countries, through analytical work and policy design, in the development of regional mechanisms to facilitate the mobilization of financial resources for inclusive and sustainable development, including from international financial institutions and the private sector;

"(e) Contribute, as a member of the United Nations inter-agency task team on science, technology and innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals and as secretariat to the Commission on Science and Technology for Development, to the implementation of outcomes related to science, technology and innovation of the 2030 Agenda, including the Technology Facilitation Mechanism and operationalization of the technology bank for LDCs;

"(f) Continue and enhance its work program on science, technology, innovation, including the STI policy review to support policy making in developing countries by assessing the effectiveness and identifying priorities for action leading to sustainable development;

"(g) Continue its work on the linkages between international trade, financial and macroeconomic issues, with a view to helping developing countries to integrate successfully into the global economy;

"(h) Continue to provide and reinforce its technical assistance and capacity building to developing countries and countries with economies in transition before, during and in the follow up of the process of accession to the WTO;

"(i) Continue, as a contribution to the work of the United Nations, research and analysis on the prospects of, and impact on, developing countries in matters of trade and development, in light of the global economic and financial crisis;

"(j) Continue to provide technical assistance and capacity-building to developing countries and countries with economies in transition in the area of multilateral and regional trade negotiations, formulation of trade policy framework and services policy review and other related-trade policy aspects;

"(k) Assist developing countries, including through capacity-building, with the creation of methodologies, within its mandate, to measure the impact of national policy efforts towards achieving sustainable development, and with the maintenance of appropriate and updated national statistics in order to adhere to international standards;" ........

Sub-theme 2: Promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth through trade, investment, finance and technology to achieve prosperity for all

"47. International public finance plays an important role in complementing the efforts of countries to mobilize public resources domestically. Not all programs and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions are able to access a wide range of finance and remain reliant on ODA as a predictable source of finance for their implementation. Targeting the eradication of poverty in its multiple dimensions, including extreme poverty is particularly important for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. In this regard, it is important that the access to cooperation and the measurement of development recognize the multi-dimensional nature of poverty and the challenge specificities and the need to address key structural vulnerabilities in developing countries. An important use of international public finance, including ODA, is to catalyse additional resource mobilization from other sources, public and private. Modernization of the ODA measurement and the proposed measure of "tot al official support for sustainable development" should not dilute commitments already made.

"48. Technology and its financing are a key means of implementation and a component of achieving the sustainable development goals. However, for the majority of the developing countries, the potential of science, technology and innovation remains unfulfilled. Closing technological gaps is both essential for poverty eradication and a key instrument for reducing inequality within and among countries. The means of implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals includes the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies, on favourable terms including on concessional and preferential terms as mutually agreed. Knowledge transfer from diasporas can also make an important contribution. FDI and trade can play a key role in disseminating environmentally sound technologies to developing countries and in stimulating technology development. Technology diffusion to developing countries can be facilitated by various measures including through addressi ng potential barriers to technology transfer at all levels, access to finance, making technology more affordable, trade liberalisation with appropriate supporting policies, investment in human capital and increasing the capacity of domestic industries and infrastructure to support technology attraction and absorption, recognizing the importance of adequate, balanced and effective protection of intellectual property rights in both developed and developing countries in line with nationally defined priorities and in full respect of international obligations. An effective domestic and international enabling environment is also needed to ensure the potential development benefits of technology."

"49. South-South cooperation as a complement not a substitute to North-South cooperation, and triangular cooperation have an important role in achieving inclusive and sustainable development, including in finance and technology. South-South cooperation should be seen as an expression of solidarity among peoples and countries of the South, based on their shared experiences and objectives. By assisting developing countries in establishing development paths that promote equity, openness, comprehensiveness and innovation, the increased importance of South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation has been recognized as supporting the realization of the 2030 Agenda. Stronger economic ties among developing countries will also continue to have a positive impact on trade and financial flows, building of local technological capability and economic growth in developing countries." ........

"51. As highlighted by the 2030 Agenda and the AAAA, the fulfilment of all official development assistance commitments remains crucial. ODA providers reaffirmed their respective commitments, including the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to LDCs." ........

"55. Information technology and the digital economy, including electronic commerce (e-commerce), have an increasing impact on global trade and development. Further research is needed on the trade and development aspects of these issues. ........

UNCTAD should:

"58 (a) Identify specific needs and measures arising from the interdependence between trade, finance, investment, technology and macroeconomic policies from the point of view of its effect on development;

"58 (b) Undertake research and analysis and provide technical assistance on the changing international trade landscape, including identifying means of stimulating economic diversification, reducing trade costs, promoting value-added production, including in global value chains for goods and services, while addressing transparency, social and environmental responsibility and their potential development impacts; ........

"58 (g) Continue its work on issues related to South-South cooperation and integration, and triangular cooperation; ........

"58 (m) Continue and reinforce its work on trade in services, services data and statistics and analysis of trade and services for development; ........

"58 (q) Acknowledging that WIPO has the lead in intellectual property right issues in the United Nations system, UNCTAD will continue its work on IPR as it relates to trade and development;" ........

"58 (z) Reinforce its work on the links between gender equality, women's and girls' empowerment and trade and development, and support member States in the design and implementation of policies and establishment of institutions that support women's economic empowerment, economic security and rights and enhance their economic opportunities;

"59 (a) Continue to assess the economic development prospects of the Palestinian Occupied territory and examine obstacles to trade and development, and should strengthen its programme of assistance to the Palestinian people with adequate resources and effective operational activities including relevant studies as part of international community's commitment to building an independent Palestinian State, and with a view to alleviating the adverse economic and social conditions imposed on the Palestinian people in line with the Accra Accord and the Doha mandate;" ........

Sub-theme 3: Advancing economic structural transformation and cooperation to build economic resilience and address trade and development challenges and opportunities, at all levels, within the UNCTAD mandate

"60. The global economy faces a series of persistent and emerging challenges to ensuring stable economic growth as well as achieving inclusive and sustainable development. These challenges include slow economic growth, challenges of climate change, response to growing energy demands. To this end, increasing resilience to these shocks is critical to achieving inclusive sustainable development. Key elements of such resilience are, structural transformation, the development of productive capacities, economic diversification and industrialization, which all need an enabling environment at all levels. Poverty eradication and development efforts focused on stimulating sustainable long-term economic productivity and competitiveness can also play a role by generating domestic revenues to help build resilience, including through investment in physical and human infrastructure.

"61. Economic structural transformation through diversification into more modern sustainable and technologically advanced activities and the production of higher value products is very important for resilience-building and sustainable long-term growth. However, structural transformation has proved challenging, partly reflecting limited technological development, poor infrastructure, in particular access to electricity, weak skills bases, domestic supply-side constraints, and challenging global economic environment in particular uncertainty in global financial and commodity markets. Those challenges have affected the required mobilization of resources from both domestic and external sources to finance the investment essential to promote economic structural transformation. It will also require sound social, environmental and economic policies, including countercyclical fiscal policies, adequate fiscal space, good governance and democratic and transparent institutions at all levels. .. ......

"63. Diversification of production, and value addition together with increasing productivity in traditional sectors such as agriculture, is critical to increasing economic resilience and building the productive capacities needed to create jobs, generate sustainable livelihoods, contribute to food security, increase incomes and improve quality of life. It is also critical to the establishment of inclusive and sustainable development. Diversification and value addition are particularly important in commodity-dependent countries, given the current depressed prices for some raw materials to reduce exposure to volatile international commodity markets and facilitate movement up regional and global value chains. Infrastructure investments, environmentally sound technologies, capacity- building and training in transferable skills can increase value added from extractive trade activities along a value chain to allow countries to better take advantage of the opportunities and diffuse the bene fits of resource rents to the wider economy, develop all stages of production and help local communities take advantage of the resulting opportunities.

"64. Successful diversification requires an international enabling environment, including a trading regime, conducive to the achievement of inclusive and sustainable development and sustained growth. Cooperation with other relevant international fora, like the G20 and APEC, can make a contribution in this respect. A stable international financial and monetary system also contributes to that end. An international economic environment that fails to support diversification risks jeopardizing all efforts to meet the needs of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in particular in developing countries. ........

"70. Some commonalities may nonetheless be identified in the policies and institutions needed for inclusive and sustainable development. The central role of the state in promoting equitable and sustainable development has long been recognized. This role extends beyond mitigating market failures and imperfections. A State that actively promotes development policies is also needed to bring about markets, to direct resources from low value added to higher productivity sectors and to promote sound investment policies. Open trade and free markets should be governed by prudent policy and sound regulation, avoiding the extremes of protectionism on the one hand and ungoverned markets on the other, and macroeconomic, environmental and social policies should focus on job creation, social inclusion, infrastructure investment and interconnectivity. ........

"77. Women play a critical role in development and contribute to structural transformation. Therefore gender equality and empowerment of women and girls is essential to unlock this potential. Globally, women comprise more than 40 percent of the workforce, and 45 percent in LDCs, and play a critical role as producers and traders. Obstacles to women's empowerment such as gender bias and income inequality remain important. Actions are required to address specific challenges to their equal and active participation in domestic, regional and international trade especially to foster women's entrepreneurship and increase the participation of women-owned companies in international trade. These actions include enhancing access to education and finance, increasing skills and knowledge and securing an enabling environment at all levels. The role of the financial sector in promoting the entrepreneurship of both women and youth also merits particular attention."

UNCTAD should:

"80 (a) Provide statistics, analytical work and technical assistance to developing countries in the areas of trade, economic diversification, industrial policies and the effective mobilization of financial resources for structural transformation, to enhance growth and development and to integrate beneficially into the global economy, including through development of sectors and activities that generate greater value addition and effective exploitation of trade opportunities offered by multilateral and regional initiatives; ........

"80 (c) Develop statistics and conduct research on emerging and long-standing development challenges to LDCs and analyse national and international policy strategies and programmes aimed at their graduation and sustainable development to provide practical solutions and policy options, including through promotion of investment and entrepreneurship and building productive capacities;

"80 (d) Continue and strengthen technical cooperation activities in LDCs through training and capacity-building in accordance with the Istanbul Programme of Action;

"80 (e) Continue and further address the needs of LLDCs [land locked developing countries] in formulating and implementing policies and strategies centred on fostering productive capacities and structural economic transformation, in accordance with the Vienna Programme of Action;

"80 (f) Continue to assist SIDS [Small Island Developing States] in their efforts to address their physical and economic vulnerabilities, promote structural economic transformation, build resilience and productive capacities in accordance with the SAMOA Pathway;

"80 (g) Continue activities to disseminate research findings and policy analysis on LDCs and enhance policy dialogue with LDC policymakers;

"80 (h) Continue to address through its work on the integrated treatment of trade and development and the interrelated issues on areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development, the specific challenges faced by middle-income countries, according to their needs for structural transformation. These challenges may include the slow pace of diversification and the impact of premature deindustrialization; ........

"80 (j) Continue its support to address the special concerns and needs of Africa including through provision of policy advice and analysis; ........

" 80 (l) Assist LDCs to progress towards and prepare for graduation from the LDC category, including strategies for facilitating a smooth transition, a clear understanding of the post-graduation environment and challenges and of the need to build productive capacities, and promote structural transformation necessary for post-graduation sustainable development;"

Sub-theme 4: Contributing to the effective implementation of and follow-up to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and relevant outcomes from global conferences and summits, as related to trade and development

"81. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a historic agreement of unprecedented scope and significance that will shape the global economic and development agenda for the next 15 years and require the full engagement of the international community. The success of the new development agenda will depend on all members of the international community playing their respective roles and fulfilling their mandates in its implementation. The role of UNCTAD within this broader process will be determined primarily by its mandate but also its ability to ensure that its research and analysis and technical cooperation activities contribute to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and by its capacity to strengthen synergies and coherence between the three pillars of UNCTAD.

"82. Sustainable development is about meeting the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It includes improving living standards, while advancing long-term economic goals. The 2030 Agenda reaffirms the importance of the balance between the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development and integrating them into policies and programmes, while taking into account different national realities, capacities, needs and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. It means protecting the environment including tackling climate change and its impacts and it requires actions at all levels by public sector, private sector and civil society to ensure that their decisions contribute to an excellent quality of life for both present and future generation. Such efforts can be enhanced by developing transparent measures of progress on sustainable development that go beyond per capita income to encompas s the social, economic, and environmental aspects of domestic output and structural gaps at all levels, together with tools to mainstream sustainable development into national development strategies and to monitor its realization in different economic activities. ........

"93. UNCTAD has a unique and central role as a producer and provider of statistics across all areas of its work. In addition to the integrated treatment of trade with other global and macroeconomic issues from a development perspective, UNCTAD should also continue to pursue its established mandate in the provision of technical assistance on trade and development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development.

"94. In focusing on its mandate across the three pillars of research, technical assistance and consensus building, UNCTAD should strengthen its role in addressing the needs and priorities of developing countries for sustainable development and strengthening their role in the global economy. Cooperation with civil society should also be strengthened, to enhance their advocacy for inclusive sustainable development, as should consultation with other private sector actors to identify key obstacles to investment, particularly in LDCs. ........

"96. The three pillars of consensus-building, research and analysis and technical assistance remain of equal strategic importance. Further efforts are needed to increase their linkages and complementarity to enhance the contribution of UNCTAD to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The intergovernmental machinery should determine the institution's direction and provide the political context for its research and analytical work, which in turn should inform and support consensus-building on development challenges.

"97. The role of the Trade and Development Board should be central to these efforts and should be strengthened. The Working Party on Strategic Framework and Programme Budget, and through it the Trade and Development Board, should be supplied in a concise and timely manner with the necessary aggregate information by the UNCTAD Secretariat to adequately fulfil this role.

"98. The existing intergovernmental machinery of UNCTAD should be revitalized, thus better supporting the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The Geneva Dialogues should continue as a mechanism for the continued analytical and research-based discussion of the systemic impact of development policies at the global level on national policymaking and implementation. Areas of attention should include persistent and emerging economic challenges from a development perspective. ........

"100. Independent development oriented analytical work of UNCTAD is crucial to inform the deliberations of member States. It should continue to provide regular analysis of the global trends in trade and development and interrelated issues with a particular focus on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. It should encompass issues related to the sustainability and predictability of innovative and new sources of finance, the role of the private sector, the financing of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, and trends related to investment. ........

"102. UNCTAD's technical assistance should be further improved throughout the project cycle. Technical assistance should seek to enhance the capacity of developing countries in understanding the nature and dynamics of the global economic system and alternatives for its reform in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It should also promote and facilitate international cooperation for the development of productive capacities and industrial upgrading in developing countries, and advise countries on appropriate measures to this end. UNCTAD can also assist developing countries in achieving sustainable development, particularly in its economic dimension, as well as assist member States in monitoring progress towards the targets set out in the recent global agreements and outcomes as they relate to trade and development issues. Its technical cooperation and capacity-building, including at the ministerial level, should thus support member States, in areas encompassed by its mandate, in defining and coordinating national development strategies oriented towards sustainable development, incorporating the different approaches, visions and tools available."

"103. Results-based management should be continuously enhanced and applied as a flexible management tool, where it offers a cost effective means of advancing initiatives and development outcomes. This can contribute to improving the effectiveness, efficiency and impact on development outcomes of UNCTAD operations through sharing lessons, continuously improving the benefits of UNCTAD operations for recipients, and streamlining of reporting to donors."

UNCTAD should:

"104 (a) Contribute, through its three pillars of work, to the implementation, monitoring and review of the 2030 Agenda especially the relevant targets in the areas of trade and development and interrelated areas of finance, technology and investment across the Sustainable Development Goals, in particular Goal 17 on revitalizing the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development; ........

"104 (e) Assist, as appropriate, member States, in particular developing countries, in implementing and monitoring progress towards landmark outcomes of major United Nations summits and conferences as well as other relevant international conferences that have implications for trade and development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology and investment; ........

"104 (g) Continue its research and analysis on prospects and impacts of global economic trends as well as developments in the policies of relevant international institutions on national trade and development policies deployed to attain sustainable development, in particular by developing countries; ........

"104 (k) Focus on the main challenges that all developing countries face in the areas of trade and development and in interrelated issues of finance, investment, technology and sustainable development in pursuing internationally agreed development goals, including the Sustainable Development Goals; in this regard, special attention should be paid to LDCs and commodity-dependent developing countries as well as net food importing developing countries; ........

" 106. In line with the structure of the intergovernmental machinery as laid out in the Accra Accord, the Trade and Development Board, will operationalise the creation of two Inter-Governmental Expert Groups (IGEG). The topics to be considered will include inter alia: E-Commerce and the Digital Economy; and, Financing for Development as reflected in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and within UNCTAD's work.

"107. The allocation of resources for the operationalization of the newly established IGEGs could be through utilizing resources and time allocations of the existing expert group meetings and the two Commissions, without impacting the delivery of the Commissions' mandates. The UNCTAD Secretariat shall present options for the operationalization of the IGEGs, including their placement in the intergovernmental machinery, within existing resources to the Trade and Development Board for its consideration. The IGEG mandates will be reviewed in the next quadrennial conference. The topics of the existing Multi-Year Experts Meetings shall remain the same unless the Trade and Development Board decides otherwise.

"108. In cooperation with other relevant international organizations and other stakeholders, UNCTAD should support developing countries, in particular SIDS, in the advancement of Sustainable Development Goal 14 in the design and implementation of regional and/or national economic development strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources seeking to promote sustainable trade in ocean-based sectors including through analysis of fisheries subsidies that lead to overcapacity and overfishing and subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and the challenges they pose to developing countries, particularly in connection with the conservation of marine resources and food security."

 


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